In Quebec the official language at the provincial level is French and there have been several Francophone initiatives to ensure that the language remains prominent there. [13][14] There are also freshwater glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains and the Arctic Cordillera. In Slovakia land‐use trends are in many aspects similar to EU development. [29] Extreme northern Canada can have snow for most of the year with a Polar climate. There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2.6 billion years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. In this part of Canada begins one of the world's largest estuaries, the Estuary of Saint Lawrence (see Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests). In the late 17th century, the fur trade in beaver pelts was growing in commercial importance in North America. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. Canada holds vast reserves of water: its rivers discharge nearly 7% of the world's renewable water supply,[63] it contains a quarter of the world's wetlands, and it has the third largest amount of glaciers (after Antarctica and Greenland). Some particular regions of the Shield are referred to as mountain ranges, including the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains. [67], Canada shares with the U.S. the world's longest binational border at 8,893 kilometres (5,526 mi); 2,477 kilometres (1,539 mi) are with Alaska. European settlement did not begin in Canada until the 1500s. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi2) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). The country's 370 miles of coastline could support the new project. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the relatively flat Canadian Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture. It has three branches of government. As the cake becomes larger, the domestic land problem is naturally solved. It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. [73], The westernmost point is Boundary Peak 187 (60°18′22.929″N 141°00′7.128″W) at the southern end of the Yukon–Alaska border, which roughly follows 141°W but leans very slightly east as it goes North 60°18′04″N 141°00′36″W / 60.301°N 141.010°W / 60.301; -141.010 (Boundary Peak 187). While the largest part of the Canadian Arctic is composed of seemingly endless permafrost and tundra north of the tree line, it encompasses geological regions of varying types: the Arctic Cordillera (with the British Empire Range and the United States Range on Ellesmere Island) contains the northernmost mountain system in the world. Canada's largest cities are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. The Anahim Volcanic Belt was formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over the Anahim hotspot. Geographical and historical treatment of Canada, including maps and statistics as well as a survey of its people, economy, and government. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and the Alberta Badlands are quite hilly and the prairie provinces contain large areas of forest such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests. [30] Landlocked areas tend to have a warm summer continental climate zone[31] with the exception of Southwestern Ontario which has a hot summer humid continental climate. With the following subcategories; Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. Forest products contribute to one fifth of the nation's exports. In the next decades, whos to say which countries will become the worlds largest? There are significant dairy regions in central Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, the St. Lawrence Valley, northeastern Ontario, southwestern Ontario, the Red River valley of Manitoba and the valleys in the British Columbia Interior, on Vancouver Island and in the Lower Mainland. They had to make challenging overland journeys from the Great Lakes or the St. Lawrence River. Because they were few in number, the native peoples made little impact on … Canada's geographic proximity to the United States has historically bound the two countries together in the political world as well. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. The size is roughly ~1,900,000 km2 (733,594.1 sq mi). [3] Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans. The fisheries industry has historically been one of Canada's strongest. Canada is the world's second-largest country by area but its population, at slightly less than that of the state of California, is small by comparison. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably the Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, the Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. 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