Typically, the sample tube is calibrated with a known standard. Magnetic materials 1. Magnetic materials 1) Magnetic Induction or Magnetic Flux density (B): The magnetic induction or magnetic flux density is the number of lines of magnetic force passing through unit area perpendicularly. The force is measured with the magnetic field turned ON and with the field OFF at a given temperature (e.g., room temperature). (2) The magnetization can be defined as E M B ∂ =− ∂, (3) where E is the total energy of the system. THEORY: For diamagnetic materials, let us imagine that an atom that is a nucleus in a stationary cloud of electrons is placed in a magnetic field, as in Fig. Fortunately only a few minerals occur abundantly enough in nature to make a significant contribution to the induced and remanent fields. magnetic susceptibility of a number of materials by using a sample, a magnetic field, and a mass balance, and compare the values to the known material susceptibilities. Magnetic Susceptibility. Definitions (2) and (3) are more general and can be used in calculations. 4/30/2015 J.Subrahmanyam Confidential 1 2. w.wang 46 Magnetic susceptibility and permeability In large class of materials, there exists a linear relation between M (internal magnetization) and H (external applied magnetic field)M = χH χ is positive then the material is called paramagnetic χis negative then the material is diamagnetic A linear relationship also occurs between B (magnetic flux density) example of AC susceptibility of the high-temperature super-conductor LaBaCa(Cu 1-xZn x)O 7- δ. is shown in Fig. 40 45 50. define the magnetic susceptibility as follows M B χ ∂ = ∂. 1a. 3. Measure- 200. In other words, it is the magnetic field which material itself produces. mol −1 (CGS) and is defined as \[{\displaystyle \chi _{\text{mol}}=M\chi _{v}/\rho }\] The magnetic susceptibility factor χ arises from the magnetization M induced in a material exposed to an external magnetic field H 0, corresponding to a magnetic induction B 0 =μ 0 H 0, in the absence of the material, where μ 0 =4π×10 −7 (T m A −1) is the magnetic permeability in vacuum. Where Φ is the magnetic flux and A is the area of cross section. the magnetic susceptibility, spatial distribution and concentration of the local crustal materials. as: M = .H. Magnetization (M) and Magnetic field (H) are related by a term known as Magnetic Susceptibility (.) 600. 11 The out-of-phase component of the susceptibility is nonzero for temperatures slightly below the transition temperature, where magnetic irreversibility occurs in the sample. 0 5 10. magnetic field gradient, which is not very practical! 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